[40] The Pony Express delivered mail summer and winter in roughly 10 days from the midwest to California. Wagon trails were cleared increasingly farther west, and eventually reached all the way to the Willamette Valley in Oregon, at which point what came to be called the Oregon Trail was complete, even as almost annual improvements were made in the form of bridges, cutoffs, ferries, and roads, which made the trip faster and safer. [88] Others would use discarded furniture, wagons, and wheels as firewood. The wagons had no springs, and the ride along the trail was very rough. In 1848, the Salt Lake Cutoff was established by Sam Hensley,[63] and returning members of the Mormon Battalion providing a path north of the Great Salt Lake from Salt Lake City back to the California and Oregon trails. One of the earliest and most popular of these was Landsford Hastings’s The Emigrant’s Guide to Oregon and California (1845). [84] More frequently, however, travelers relied on "buffalo chips"—dried bison dung—to fuel fires. [84] When emigrants faced starvation, they would sometimes slaughter their animals (horses, mules, and oxen). Before 1852 those on the north side of the Platte crossed the North Platte to the south side at Fort Laramie. Paddle wheel steamships and sailing ships, often heavily subsidized to carry the mail, provided rapid transport to and from the east coast and New Orleans, Louisiana, to and from Panama to ports in California and Oregon. The deep, wide, swift, and treacherous Green River which eventually empties into the Colorado River, was usually at high water in July and August, and it was a dangerous crossing. None of these original statistical records have been found—the Army either lost them or destroyed them. St. Joseph had good steamboat connections to St. Louis and other ports on the combined Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi River systems. Its Quinault interpreter survived, and later told the PFC management at Fort Astoria of the destruction. Mormon emigration records after 1860 are reasonably accurate, as newspaper and other accounts in Salt Lake City give most of the names of emigrants arriving each year from 1847 to 1868. [80], By 1842, many emigrants favored oxen—castrated bulls (males) of the genus Bos (cattle), generally over four years old—as the best animal to pull wagons, because they were docile, generally healthy, and able to continue moving in difficult conditions such as mud and snow. Others went to California. The "adjusted"[35] 1850 U.S. Census of California showed this rush was overwhelmingly male with about 112,000 males to 8,000 females (with about 5,500 women over age 15). [76], The north side of the Snake had better water and grass than the south. The main Oregon and California Trail went almost due north from Fort Bridger to the Little Muddy Creek where it passed over the Bear River Mountains to the Bear River Valley, which it followed northwest into the Thomas Fork area, where the trail crossed over the present day Wyoming line into Idaho. "[14] In 1830, William Sublette brought the first wagons carrying his trading goods up the Platte, North Platte, and Sweetwater rivers before crossing over South Pass to a fur trade rendezvous on the Green River near the future town of Big Piney, Wyoming. Ski Pro 4. [32] About 2,200 LDS pioneers went that first year as they filtered in from Mississippi, Colorado, California, and several other states. He was mapping the country for possible fur trading posts. Graves were often put in the middle of a trail and then run over by the livestock to make them difficult to find. James Sinclair led a large party of nearly 200 settlers from the Red River Colony in 1841. Not everyone survived the difficult trip. These combined stage and Pony Express stations along the Oregon Trail and Central Route across Utah and Nevada were joined by the First Transcontinental Telegraph stations and telegraph line, which followed much the same route in 1861 from Carson City, Nevada to Salt Lake City. After crossing the South Platte River the Oregon Trail follows the North Platte River out of Nebraska into Wyoming. Some traveled as the slave property of white travelers, but many were free people. [106] Other common diseases along the trail included dysentery, an intestinal infection that causes diarrhea containing blood or mucus,[107] and typhoid fever, another fecal-oral disease. [85] Nevertheless, pioneers' consumption of the wild berries (including chokeberry, gooseberry, and serviceberry) and currants that grew along the trail (particularly along the Platte River) helped make scurvy infrequent. After a few days' travel they soon discovered that steep canyons, waterfalls and impassable rapids made travel by river impossible. From 1843 until the 1860s, some 400,000 men, women, and children followed this 2,000-mile trail, averaging four months to make the cross-country journey. There their discomfort from the heat was heightened by the ever-present dust on the trail in Wyoming, Idaho, and eastern Oregon. The fur trade business wound down to a very low level just as the Oregon trail traffic seriously began around 1840. Extra harnesses and spare wagon parts were often carried. From the present site of Pocatello, the trail proceeded almost due west on the south side of the Snake River for about 180 miles (290 km). The numbers alone are enough to chill. [70] The trails on the north side joined the trail from Three Island Crossing about 17 miles (27 km) west of Glenns Ferry on the north side of the Snake River. Upon arriving back in a settled area they bought pack horses (on credit) and retrieved their furs. The group set out for Oregon Country, a four- to six-month trek across plains, mountains, valleys, and rivers. Nathaniel Wyeth, the original founder of Fort Hall in 1834, writes in his diary that they found a ford across the Snake River 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest of where he founded Fort Hall. They normally used the north side of the Platte River—the same route used 20 years later by the Mormon Trail. In 2014 a musical named The Trail to Oregon, based on The Oregon Trail game, with music and lyrics by Jeff Blim and a book by Jeff Blim, Nick Lang and Matt Lang was performed in Chicago and later posted to YouTube. The springs here were a favorite attraction of the pioneers who marveled at the hot carbonated water and chugging "steamboat" springs. The biggest obstacle they faced was in the Blue Mountains of Oregon where they had to cut and clear a trail through heavy timber. Fort Hall was an old fur trading post located on the Snake River. [10][11] This attempt at settlement failed when most of the families joined the settlers in the Willamette Valley, with their promise of free land and HBC-free government. Others would chain a large string of wagons and teams together. It was one of the two main emigrant routes to the American West in the 19th century, the other being the southerly Santa Fe Trail. At Salmon Falls there were often a hundred or more Native Americans fishing who would trade for their salmon, a welcome treat. After following the Santa Fe trail to near present-day Topeka, they ferried across the Kansas River to start the trek across Kansas and points west. In August 1811, three months after Fort Astor was established, David Thompson and his team of British North West Company explorers came floating down the Columbia to Fort Astoria. Destinations along the Oregon Trail in Kansas included St. Mary's Mission, Pottawatomie Indian Pay Station, Vieux's Vermilion Crossing, Alcove Springs and Hollenberg Station. Under Hunt, fearing attack by the Niitsitapi, the overland expedition veered south of Lewis and Clark's route into what is now Wyoming and in the process passed across Union Pass and into Jackson Hole, Wyoming. They were looking for a safe location to spend the winter. (The Oregon and California emigrants typically averaged about 15 miles (24 km) per day.) The need for grass and forage to feed their stock along the trail meant emigrants could not realistically leave until springtime, when the grasses were again growing. In 1847 the Mormons established three ferries across the Missouri River and others established even more ferries for the spring start on the trail. West of Topeka, the route paralleled what is now U.S. Route 24 until west of St. Mary's. Women also reacted and responded, often enthusiastically, to the landscape of the West. Historic route to and through the American Old West, The route of the Oregon Trail shown on a map of the western United States from Independence, Missouri (on the eastern end) to Oregon City, Oregon (on the western end), The North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company. Near the junction of the Raft River and Snake River the California Trail diverged from the Oregon Trail at another Parting of the Ways junction. [40] From Salt Lake City the telegraph line followed much of the Mormon/California/Oregon trails to Omaha, Nebraska. With literally thousands of people and thousands of livestock traveling in a fairly small time slot the travelers had to spread out to find clean water, wood, good campsites, and grass. [84], Randolph B. Marcy, an Army officer who wrote an 1859 guide, advised taking less bacon than the earlier guides had recommended. Later, more family groups started traveling, and many more bridges and ferries were being put in, so fording a dangerous river became much less common and dangerous. It used 1,800 head of stock, horses and mules and 139 relay stations to ensure the stages ran day and night. Although operating Dutch ovens and kneading dough was difficult on the trail, many baked good bread and even pies. Being run over was a major cause of death, despite the wagons' only averaging 2–3 miles per hour. In 1869, the Central Pacific established Kelton, Utah as a railhead and the terminus of the western mail was moved from Salt Lake City. The most famous failure in that regard was that of the Donner Party, whose members struggled to traverse what is today called Donner Pass, in November 1846. [80] Others, by contrast, believed that mules were more durable, and mules may have had a lower attrition rate on the trail than oxen. Fort Laramie, at the confluence of the Laramie and North Platte rivers, was a major stopping point. The army maintained fort was the first chance on the trail to buy emergency supplies, do repairs, get medical aid, or mail a letter. The Donation Land Act provided for married settlers to be granted 320 acres (1.3 km2) and unmarried settlers 160 acres (0.65 km2). At Fort Hall nearly all travelers were given some aid and supplies if they were available and needed. It started in Independence, Missouri and traveled a cleared trail that reached to Fort Hall, Idaho. [84] There are references in sources to canned cheese, fruit, meat, oysters, and sardines. Approximately seven miles (11 km) east of Declo in present-day rural Cassia County, I-84 meets the western terminus of the western section of I-86. [71][72], Goodale's Cutoff, established in 1862 on the north side of the Snake River, formed a spur of the Oregon Trail. Most of the emigrants did not journey alone but joined a wagon company, typically consisting of immediate family and relatives, friends, or people from the same area. Portion of the Snake River in southern Idaho, one of the main waterways followed by travelers on the Oregon Trail. In 1846, the Oregon Treaty ending the Oregon boundary dispute was signed with Britain. “You Have Died of Dysentery” was a … Awls, scissors, pins, needles, and thread for mending were required. The wagons could not easily be stopped, and people, particularly children, were often trying to get on and off the wagons while they were moving—not always successfully. [84][85] Chipped beef, rice, tea, dried beans, dried fruit, saleratus (for raising bread), vinegar, pickles, mustard, and tallow might also be taken. For their own use and to encourage California and Oregon bound travelers the Mormons improved the Mormon Trail from Fort Bridger and the Salt Lake Cutoff trail. Read More. Initially, the main "jumping off point" was the common head of the Santa Fe Trail and Oregon trail—Independence, and Kansas City. These pack trains were then used to haul out the fur bales. [85], Some pioneers took eggs and butter packed in barrels of flour, and some took dairy cows along the trail. Many references were made to having to chop ice from ponds and water-filled containers in locations at relatively low elevations where that phenomenon ordinarily would not have been expected. Telegraph lines to unpopulated areas were largely abandoned. The basic route follows river valleys as grass and water were absolutely necessary. It rejoined the California Trail at Cassia Creek near the City of Rocks. Farmland near Newberg, Oregon, in the Willamette River valley, the destination of tens of thousands of emigrants on the Oregon Trail. Delays of many days were typical when rivers and streams, swollen by rains, were made unfordable by flooding. They carried a large flag emblazoned with their motto "Oregon Or The Grave". [6] This knowledge would be incorporated into the concatenated trail segments as the Oregon Trail took its early shape. It then crosses over the Smith Fork of the Bear River before ascending and crossing another 8,200-foot (2,500 m) pass on the Salt River Range of mountains and then descending into Star Valley. [66] Just west of Soda Springs the Bear River turns southwest as it heads for the Great Salt Lake, and the main trail turns northwest to follow the Portneuf River valley to Fort Hall, Idaho. While the first few parties organized and departed from Elm Grove, the Oregon Trail's primary starting point was Independence, Missouri, or Westport, (which was annexed into modern day Kansas City), on the Missouri River. Another possible route consisted of taking a ship to Mexico traversing the country and then catching another ship out of Acapulco, Mexico to California etc. This route was used by many gold hungry miners in 1849 and later but suffered from the disadvantage that you had to find a way across the very wide and very dry Sonora Desert. In 1846, the Barlow Road was completed around Mount Hood, providing a rough but completely passable wagon trail from the Missouri River to the Willamette Valley: about 2,000 miles (3,200 km). This cutoff had been used as a pack trail by Native Americans and fur traders, and emigrant wagons traversed parts of the eastern section as early as 1852. In many years the Native Americans fired much of the dry grass on the prairie every fall so the only trees or bushes available for firewood were on islands in the Platte River. The hundreds of abandoned ships, whose crews had deserted in San Francisco Bay in 1849–50, showed many thousands chose to do this. The trail from Three Island Crossing to Old Fort Boise was about 130 miles (210 km) long. The time and the cost for transit dropped as regular paddle wheel steamships and sailing ships went from ports on the east coast and New Orleans, Louisiana, to Colón, Panama ($80–$100), across the Isthmus of Panama by railroad ($25) and by paddle wheel steamships and sailing ships to ports in California and Oregon ($100–$150). By 1836, when the first migrant wagon train was organized in Independence, Missouri, a wagon trail had been cleared to Fort Hall, Idaho. There is no estimate on how many used it to return East.[91]. Canning also added weight to a wagon. Following the discovery of gold, California remained the destination of choice for most emigrants on the trail up to 1860, with almost 200,000 people traveling there between 1849 and 1860. Wash days typically occurred once or twice a month, or less, depending on availability of good grass, water, and fuel. [84][85] Marcy's guide correctly suggested that the consumption of wild grapes, greens, and onions could help prevent the disease and that if vegetables were not available, citric acid could be drunk with sugar and water. They used most of the York Express route through northern Canada. In 1825, the first significant American Rendezvous occurred on the Henry's Fork of the Green River. Anna Maria King wrote to her family in 1845 about her trip to the Luckiamute Valley Oregon and of the multiple deaths experienced by her traveling group: But listen to the deaths: Sally Chambers, John King and his wife, their little daughter Electa and their babe, a son 9 months old, and Dulancy C. Norton's sister are gone. The relative scarcity of women gave them many opportunities to do many more things that were not "normally" considered "women's work" of this era. This trip typically took four to seven months (120 to 210 days) and cost about $350 to $500. The Oregon Trail stretched across grassy plains and through tall mountains. Often young Native American boys were hired to drive and ride the stock across the river—they knew how to swim, unlike many pioneers. Women wrote with sadness and concern of the numerous deaths along the trail. Between 1841 and 1869, hundreds of thousands of people traveled westward on the trail. Perhaps some 300,000 to 400,000 people used it during its heyday from the mid-1840s to the late 1860s, and possibly a half million traversed it overall, covering an average of 15 to 20 miles (24 to 32 km) per day; most completed their journeys in four to five months. The party continued east via the Sweetwater River, North Platte River (where they spent the winter of 1812–13) and Platte River to the Missouri River, finally arriving in St. Louis in the spring of 1813. The diet in the mining camps was also typically low in fresh vegetables and fruit, which indirectly led to early deaths of many of the inhabitants. Woody Guthrie wrote and recorded a song entitled "Oregon Trail" while travelling in the region in 1941. When you’re longing for a travel adventure that takes you back in time, plant yourself under the wide-open skies of the Oregon Trail. From the letter of Anna Maria King, in Covered Wagon Women, Volume 1, by Kenneth L. Holmes, ebook version, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1983, Page 41. In 1847 Young led a small, especially picked fast-moving group of men and women from their Winter Quarters encampments near Omaha, Nebraska, and their approximately 50 temporary settlements on the Missouri River in Iowa including Council Bluffs. [108], Airborne diseases also commonly affected travelers. [54] From Fort Bridger, the main trail, comprising several variants, veered northwest over the Bear River Divide and descended to the Bear River Valley. [29], Similarly, emigrant Martha Gay Masterson, who traveled the trail with her family at the age of 13, mentioned the fascination she and other children felt for the graves and loose skulls they would find near their camps.[30]. A branch of the Oregon trail crossed the very northeast corner of Colorado if they followed the South Platte River to one of its last crossings. [12] In the 1840s, the Great Plains appeared to be unattractive for settlement and were illegal for homesteading until well after 1846—initially it was set aside by the U.S. government for Native American settlements. A washboard and tub were usually brought for washing clothes. By 1870 the population in the states served by the Oregon Trail and its offshoots increased by about 350,000 over their 1860 census levels. They did show the way for the mountain men, who within a decade would find a better way across, even if it was not to be an easy way. 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