[41], Both bailiwicks issue their own banknotes and coins, which circulate freely in all the islands alongside UK coinage and Bank of England and Scottish banknotes.[44]. In 1066, William II of Normandy invaded and conquered England, becoming William I of England, also known as William the Conqueror. Harmonised standards are common to all countries of the EEA and CE marked products are required to have access to … The European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement and the European Union (EU) are not the same thing. the Crown, the Church, and the people). Due to the destruction of documents, it is impossible to state how many forced workers died in the other islands. The grant of seigneurship from Elizabeth I of England in 1565 forms the basis of Sark's constitution today. The Royal Navy blockaded the islands from time to time, particularly following the Invasion of Normandy in June 1944. The other two are a 7.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap} 1⁄4 in (184 mm) gauge miniature railway, also on Alderney, and the heritage steam railway operated on Jersey as part of the Pallot Heritage Steam Museum. Many of the town domiciles existing today were built in that time. In the sixth century, Christian missionaries visited the islands. This update can change over time so it is important to understand if any EEA country changes affect your immigration status or change how you would normally qualify to work under EEA country rules for you and especially your non-EEA family members. Christianity was brought to the islands around the sixth century; according to tradition, Jersey was evangelised by St Helier, Guernsey by St Samson of Dol, and the smaller islands were occupied at various times by monastic communities representing strands of Celtic Christianity. The legal courts are separate; separate courts of appeal have been in place since 1961. [14][15][16], The islands acquired commercial and political interests in the North American colonies. Shooting is a popular sport, in which islanders have won Commonwealth medals. [49] There are four main dialects/languages of Norman in the islands, Auregnais (Alderney, extinct in late twentieth century), Dgèrnésiais (Guernsey), Jèrriais (Jersey) and Sercquiais (Sark, an offshoot of Jèrriais). EEA is short for European Economic Area. [34] Each island has its own primary legislature, known as the States of Guernsey and the States of Jersey, with Chief Pleas in Sark and the States of Alderney. The Channel Islands are not represented in the UK Parliament. From the beginning of the ninth century, Norse raiders appeared on the coasts. In the 1960s, names used for the cross-Channel ferries plying the mail route between the islands and Weymouth, Dorset, were taken from the popular Latin names for the islands: Caesarea (Jersey), Sarnia (Guernsey) and Riduna (Alderney). Today there are three working railways in the Channel Islands, of which the Alderney Railway is the only one providing a regular timetabled passenger service. Edward III of England granted a Charter in July 1341 to Jersey, Guernsey, Sark and Alderney, confirming their customs and laws to secure allegiance to the English Crown. [5]:158 The term refers only to the archipelago to the west of the Cotentin Peninsula. The Channel islands, Isle of Man, Gibraltar and numerous other places are British crown dependendancies and therefore not part of the UK. Switzerland is neither an EU nor EEA member but is part of the single market – this means Swiss nationals have the same rights to live and work in the UK as other EEA nationals. [55], Guernsey's traditional colour for sporting and other purposes is green and Jersey's is red. 28 member states within EU; three of the four member states of the EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). [27] The first evacuees returned on the first sailing from Great Britain on 23 June,[20] but the people of Alderney were unable to start returning until December 1945. A number of islands in the English Channel are part of France. [45] Senator Alan Maclean, a Jersey politician, had previously tried to save the 90-odd jobs furnished by the company to no avail. 'Îles Normandes' and 'Archipel Normand' have also, historically, been used in Channel Island French to refer to the islands as a whole. [21], Following the liberation of 1945, reconstruction led to a transformation of the economies of the islands, attracting immigration and developing tourism. There are several local newspapers including the Guernsey Press and the Jersey Evening Post and magazines. It seeks to strengthen trade and … It used to include Switzerland and the visa regimes of most countries throughout the world still treat Swiss passport holders as if Switzerland was still an EEA member. Even though Switzerland is not an EEA member, its citizens enjoy similar benefits in the UK. For the archipelago off the coast of California, see, Satellite photo of the Channel Islands in 2018, UK Supreme Court, R (on the application of Barclay and another) v. Secretary of State for Justice [2014] UKSC 54, List of islands of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, Channel Islands in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, minor counties of English and Welsh cricket, List of churches, chapels and meeting halls in the Channel Islands, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Fact sheet on the UK's relationship with the Crown Dependencies", Bertrand du Guesclin: The Black Dog of Brittany, "Appendix F: Concentration Camps: Endlösung – The Final Solution", "Aurigny; un camp de concentration nazi sur une île anglo-normande (English: Alderney, a Nazi concentration camp on an island Anglo-Norman)", "Nazi Germany Surrenders: February 1945 – May 1945", "Public Hearing: Review of the Roles of the Crown Officers", "Review of the Roles of the Jersey Crown Officers", "Background briefing on the Crown Dependencies: Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man", "Guernsey and Jersey begin recruiting for senior Brussels positions", "Jersey Economy 2020, CIA World Factbook", "Measuring Jersey's economy GVA and GDP - 2018", "Gross Value Added and Gross Domestic Product", "Guernsey Annual GVA and GDP Bulletin 2018 (First Estimates)", "Other British Islands' Notes | Bank of England", "New Channel Island company offers freight service", "Channel Isles: The Islands' Domain Names :: Home", "Trail of the unexpected: Victor Hugo’s Guernsey", "Minor Counties Trophy Matches played by Channel Islands", "First ever Jersey official religion statistics show 39% of islanders are non-religious", "This is the eighth part of a 54-page article", British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Guernsey Grammar School and Sixth Form Centre, Policy and Resources Committee of Guernsey, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Channel_Islands&oldid=993204012, Special territories of the European Union, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2015, Articles with French-language sources (fr), CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2015, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Little Swinge (between Burhou and Les Nannels), La Déroute (between Jersey and Sark, and Jersey and the Cotentin), Souachehouais (between Le Rigdon and L'Étacq, Jersey). The Isle of Sark Shipping Company operates small ferries to Sark. [12]:5–10 Jersey was occupied by the French in 1461 as part of an exchange of helping the Lancastrians fight against the Yorkists during The War of the Roses. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (including Gibraltar, excluding the Channel Islands, BNO passport holders and Isle of Man) From 31 January 2020 the UK is no longer an EU/EEA member state. In the early 21st century, the existence of governmental offices such as the bailiffs' with multiple roles straddling the different branches of government came under increased scrutiny for their apparent contravention of the doctrine of separation of powers—most notably in the Guernsey case of McGonnell -v- United Kingdom (2000) 30 EHRR 289. The EEA includes EU countries and also Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. In the late twentieth century, a strong Roman Catholic presence re-emerged with the arrival of numerous Portuguese workers (both from mainland Portugal and the island of Madeira). However, there is a formal relationship between the Channel Islands and the EU which is governed by Protocol 3 to the UK's Act of Accession to the European Economic Community in 1972 ("Protocol 3"). … The basis of the legal systems of both Bailiwicks is Norman customary law (Coutume) rather than the English Common Law, although elements of the latter have become established over time. They were historically linked to the Duchy of Normandy, but they are part of the French territory along with continental Normandy, and not part of the British Isles or of the Channel Islands in a political sense. The Isle of Wight, which is part of England, lies just off the coast of Great Britain, between the Channel and the Solent. [46] On 20 September, it was announced that Channel Island Lines would continue this service, and would purchase the MV Huelin Dispatch from Associated British Ports who in turn had purchased them from the receiver in the bankruptcy. Control by the bishop of Winchester was ineffectual as the islands had turned overwhelmingly Calvinist and the episcopacy was not restored until 1620 in Jersey and 1663 in Guernsey. The Canary Islands are a Spanish archipelago off the African coast which form one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain –the country's principal first-level administrative division. In Jersey, potatoes are an important export crop, shipped mostly to the UK. Islanders became involved with the Newfoundland fisheries in the seventeenth century. Submarine cables connect the various islands and provide connectivity with England and France. The Channel Islands and the European Union. The two Bailiwicks each have their own internet domain, .GG (Guernsey, Alderney, Sark) and .JE (Jersey), which are managed by channelisles.net. There was no resistance movement in the Channel Islands on the scale of that in mainland France. The German occupation of 1940–45 was harsh: over 2,000 Islanders were deported by the Germans,[20] some Jews were sent to concentration camps; partisan resistance and retribution, accusations of collaboration, and slave labour also occurred. Liechtenstein. The Isle of Wight, for example, is not a "Channel Island", despite being located in the Channel. Bicycles display tax discs. But there were not enough of them to leave any trace and the islands continued to be ruled by the king of the Franks and its church remained part of the diocese of Coutances. Switzerland is not part of the EEA, but has an agreement that extends the single market to include it. Motorenbezeichnung mit Leistung;    engine name and power, CE marking services for recreational craft. The 27 EU countries. The Roman name for the Channel Islands was I. Lenuri (Lenur Islands) and is included in the Peutinger Table[9]:4 The traditional Latin names used for the islands (Caesarea for Jersey, Sarnia for Guernsey, Riduna for Alderney) derive (possibly mistakenly) from the Antonine Itinerary. In September 2010, a Channel Islands Brussels Office was set up jointly by the two Bailiwicks to develop the Channel Islands' influence with the EU, to advise the Channel Islands' governments on European matters, and to promote economic links with the EU.[36]. The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man have Associate Member status. GVA has fluctuated between £4.5 and £5 billion for 20 years. The Duchy of Normandy. Three additional countries (Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein), although not officially part of the European Union, are signatories to the European Economic Area (EEA). The population of Sark largely remained where they were;[20] but in Alderney, all but six people left. Although the words derive from a common root ('bail' = 'to give charge of') there is a vast difference between the meanings of the word 'bailiff' in Great Britain and in the Channel Islands; a bailiff in Britain is a court-appointed private debt-collector authorised to collect judgment debts, in the Channel Islands, the Bailiff in each bailiwick is the civil head, presiding officer of the States, and also head of the judiciary, and thus the most important citizen in the bailiwick. Regional television and radio broadcasts are available in the islands. Further national information will be published later in 2019 as a part of the The European environment — state and outlook 2020 r eport (SOER 2020). The dependencies of other member states presumably have similar arrangements. That case, following final judgement at the European Court of Human Rights, became part of the impetus for much recent constitutional change, particularly the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c.4) in the UK, including the separation of the roles of the Lord Chancellor, the abolition of the House of Lords' judicial role, and its replacement by the UK Supreme Court. Norse settlement eventually succeeded initial attacks, and it is from this period that many place names of Norse origin appear, including the modern names of the islands. The systems of government in the islands date from Norman times, which accounts for the names of the legislatures, the States, derived from the Norman 'États' or 'estates' (i.e. It is responsible for wireless telegraphy licensing throughout the islands, and by agreement, for broadcasting regulation in the two large islands only. This has been ascribed to a range of factors including the physical separation of the Islands, the density of troops (up to one German for every two Islanders), the small size of the Islands precluding any hiding places for resistance groups, and the absence of the Gestapo from the occupying forces. Both bailiwicks are members of the British–Irish Council, and Jèrriais and Guernésiais are recognised regional languages of the islands. [38], Tourism is still important however, Jersey and Guernsey have, since the 1960s, become major offshore financial centres. Wealthy French émigrés fleeing the Revolution sought residency in the islands. EEA students can take part in the same UK programs as EU students. You will also find other legal documents, such as all adopted Joint Committee Decisions and the EEA status of EU legal acts. The names of the larger islands in the archipelago in general have the -ey suffix, whilst those of the smaller ones have the -hou suffix. The lowest point is the English Channel (sea level). The EEA is composed of all EU members states as well as the following: Iceland. The end of the occupation came after VE-Day on 8 May 1945, Jersey and Guernsey being liberated on 9 May. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, which is the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, consisting of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm and some smaller islands. There are three airports in the Channel Islands; Alderney Airport, Guernsey Airport and Jersey Airport, which are directly connected to each other by services operated by Blue Islands and Aurigny. Under the UK Interpretation Act 1978, the Channel Islands are deemed to be part of the British Islands,[37] not to be confused with the British Isles. Intense negotiations resulted in some humanitarian aid being sent via the Red Cross, leading to the arrival of Red Cross parcels in the supply ship SS Vega in December 1944. [12]:2–4 Owain Lawgoch, a mercenary leader of a Free Company in the service of the French Crown, attacked Jersey and Guernsey in 1372, and in 1373 Bertrand du Guesclin besieged Mont Orgueil. Link to EU Commission's website on membership status, Next Section: Import of American Sport Boats - Requirements on Exhaust Emissions. Guernsey (GBG): a number of up to five digits; This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 10:00. In 2001 and 2002, the Channel Islands entered a team into the MCCA Knockout Trophy, the one-day tournament of the minor counties of English and Welsh cricket. Ferry services to Normandy are operated by Manche Îles Express, and services between Jersey and Saint-Malo are operated by Compagnie Corsaire and Condor Ferries. [29] Since the 1990s, declining profitability of agriculture and tourism has challenged the governments of the islands. Each has its own independent laws, elections, and representative bodies (although in modern times, politicians from the islands' legislatures are in regular contact). The following countries are part of the European Economic Area (EEA): - The Netherlands - Bulgaria - Romania - Belgium - Luxembourg - France - Germany - Italy - Ireland - Denmark - Greece - Spain - Portugal - Austria - Finland - Sweden - Cyprus - Estonia - Hungary - Latvia - Lithuania - Malta - Poland - Slovenia - Slovakia - Czech Republic While they are popular with visitors from France, Channel Islanders rarely visit them as there are no direct transport links from the other islands. [52], The annual "Muratti", the inter-island football match, is considered the sporting event of the year, although, due to broadcast coverage, it no longer attracts the crowds of spectators, travelling between the islands, that it did during the twentieth century. The Eionet core data flows page provides an overview of these data flows, which are a subset of the key data reported by EEA member and cooperating countries using the Reportnet tools. [21] Thousands of children were evacuated with their schools to England and Scotland. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Jersey held out strongly for the Royalist cause, providing refuge for Charles, Prince of Wales in 1646 and 1649–1650, while the more strongly Presbyterian Guernsey more generally favoured the parliamentary cause (although Castle Cornet was held by Royalists and did not surrender until October 1651). A regular passenger ferry service on the Commodore Clipper goes from both Channel Island ports to Portsmouth daily, and carries both passengers and freight. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, which is the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, consisting of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm and some smaller islands. For the purposes of the British Nationality Act 1981, the "British Islands" include the United Kingdom (Great Britain and Northern Ireland), the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, taken together, unless the context otherwise requires. For about two hundred years, the islands, along with Normandy and England, were united but the islands were administered from Normandy. Legal notice. Bailiwick Radio broadcasts two music services online, through Apple & Android apps and on TuneIn. In simple terms, the Island is treated as part of the European Community or EU market for the purposes of free trade in goods, but otherwise is not a part of the EU. Modern broadband speeds are available in all the islands, including VDSL for home and business. Under the provisions of Protocol Three, Channel Islanders who do not have a close connection with the UK (no parent or grandparent from the UK, and have never been resident in the UK for a five-year period) did not automatically benefit from the EU provisions on free movement within the EU, and their passports received an endorsement to that effect. Each of the three largest islands has a distinct vehicle registration scheme: In Sark, where most motor traffic is prohibited, the few vehicles – nearly all tractors – do not display plates. Their numbers have been reinforced by recent migrants from Poland and elsewhere in Eastern Europe. Switzerland, previously participating, was neither an EU nor EEA member but was part of the single market so Swiss nationals had the same rights to live and work in EEA countries as other EEA nationals. € – Eurozone. The EEA extends the single market to all 31 member states and allows nationals of participating countries to travel freely between them. [40], Jersey is heavily reliant on financial services, with 39.2% of Gross Value Added (GVA) in 2018 contributed by the sector. [41], Jersey has had a steadily rising population, increasing from below 90,000 in 2000 to over 105,000 in 2018 which combined with a flat GVA has resulted in GVA per head of population falling from £57,000 to £44,000 per person. 6,600 out of 50,000 left Jersey while 17,000 out of 42,000 left Guernsey. The European Economic Area (the EEA) includes all EU countries and also Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. The islands' bailiffs, however, still retain their historic roles. It allows the EEA EFTA States (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) to participate in the Internal Market on the basis of their application of Internal Market relevant acquis. However, the Channel Islands Brussels Office (CIBO) ensures that Jersey’s interests are promoted in Europe. Before German troops landed, between 30 June and 4 July 1940, evacuation took place. In 1259, his successor, Henry III of England, by the Treaty of Paris, officially surrendered his claim and title to the Duchy of Normandy, while the King of France gave up claim to the Channel Islands, which was based upon his position as feudal overlord of the Duke of Normandy. Introduction. The numerous dolmens and other archaeological sites extant and recorded in history demonstrate the existence of a population large enough and organised enough to undertake constructions of considerable size and sophistication, such as the burial mound at La Hougue Bie[8] in Jersey or the statue menhirs of Guernsey. Both are British Crown dependencies, and neither is a part of the United Kingdom. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom, the UK is responsible f… Bitte die mit * gekennzeichneten Felder ausfüllen. European Economic Area EEA - Information about EEA Countries "Channel Islands" is a geographical term, not a political unit. Only three of the four countries that belong to … Historically there have been railway networks on Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney, but all of the lines on Jersey and Guernsey have been closed and dismantled. continued the work. It allows them to be part of the EU’s single market. Chausey is referred to as an 'Île normande' (as opposed to anglo-normande). Moreover, much of the population of military age had joined the British Army already. The two bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century. The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche)[note 1] are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. Download printable version. 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